Tuesday, March 11, 2014

Things Which Existed In the 13th Century But Not In The 9th

Crossbows. Rockets. Maybe guns, and maybe not; they existed by the 1320's. Spurs. Trebuchets.

Eyeglasses. Sunglasses. Mirrors.

Widespread use of written vernaculars in Europe. Near-total eradication of "pagans" in Europe. The Inquisition.

Universities in Bologna, Padua, Naples, Oxford, Cambridge, Salamanca and Paris.

Paper. Paper mills. Vertical windmills. Wheelbarrows. Horizontal looms. Spinning wheels. Wine presses. The adding of hops to beer.

The dry compass. The astronomical compass. The stern-mounted rudder.


Possibly mechanical clocks. They were around by the early 14th century.

Kings of England, of the Germans, of Poland, Denmark, Portugal.

Gothic architecture, a "King of Jerusalem" and a whole other host of changes brought to Europe by the Crusades.

A separation between the Orthodox and Catholic Churches.

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